Law enforcement often uses K9s to assist with a variety of cases. Most often, they deploy them to sniff out drugs.
You may have a situation involving a drug-sniffing dog and wonder about how accurate the dog is. FindLaw explains that the use of these K9s also brings up questions about how these dogs could be violating your rights.
Drug-sniffing dogs can perform a search of your vehicle without the need for a warrant because the law does not see it as intrusive enough to violate your rights against unlawful searches. So, law enforcement will often use these dogs because if they do hit on something, this can provide enough probable cause to do a search without a warrant. For this reason, accuracy is important.
Studies show that drug-sniffing dogs can be wrong about half of the time. They are not terribly accurate, and there are valid concerns that the dogs react to their handler’s cues, which trigger false hits.
For example, if the officer handling the K9 believes there are drugs in a vehicle, then the dog may pick up on this and indicate the presence of drugs even if there is none there. The handler does not have to give any obvious cues either. Dogs may react to conscious or unconscious cues.
Of course, this is a huge concern because if the dog indicates it smells something, it allows for a search by the officer, which then could produce evidence that ends with you facing a criminal charge. Since the dog’s “search” is legal, it makes it quite difficult to claim a rights violation when your case goes to court.